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Welcome to Physical Therapy Specialists patient resource about hand injuries. The following is an article on hand anatomy. Please see the left hand menu for specific information.
Manual Muscle Testing of the Thumb. Hislop, Helen J. Daniels and Worthingham's muscle testing: techniques of manual examination.
Image Source. The intrinsic muscles of the hand are the muscles that originate and insert in the hand itself. They are responsible for the movements of the the digits and position grip. The Lumbricals flex the metacarpalphalangeal joints and extend the interphalangeal joints of digits
The hand is distal to the forearm, and its skeletal framework includes the carpus, or wrist. In lay usage, however, the word "wrist" is used for the distal end of the forearm, a wrist-watch being worn over the lower ends of the radius and ulna. The position of the hand at rest is shown in figure
At a glance, the human and primate hands may seem nearly identical. They share a number of characteristics and both can grasp and perform a number of other functions. But several differences set the two hands apart.
Reconstruction of thumb after traumatic or congenital loss in 17 cases is reported. Cases were divided into three groups according to the level of thumb loss. There were two cases in distal zone, seven in middle and eight in proximal zone.
The human hand is a fascinatingly intricate arrangement of pulleys, tendons, muscles, and nerves that work together in a complex system to perform daily tasks. It is often difficult to visualize the various paths that the tendons and muscles take. It can also make a thorough hand exam difficult to perform with proficiency. This post will review the clinically relevant anatomy of the hand, and apply it to both a screening exam and detailed exam with maneuvers used in the diagnosis of common hand injuries.
In order to test the opposition and the counter-opposition reposition of the thumb, the method proposed here does not require the measuring of angles; rather, the hand itself is used as the system of reference. The opposition test consists of touching the four long fingers with the tip of the thumb: the score is 1 for the lateral side of the second phalanx of the index finger, 2 for the lateral side of the third phalanx, 3 for the tip of the index finger, 4 for the tip of the middle finger, 5 for the ring finger and 6 for the little finger. Then, moving the thumb proximally along the volar aspect of the little finger, the score is 7 when it touches the DIP crease, 8 on the PIP crease, 9 on the proximal crease of the little finger and 10 when it reaches the distal volar crease of the hand.